Research Proposal Part 3: Methodology

Task:

The methodology covers four key parts to describing what will be done in the study. 

1) The first part is the participant’s section in which you are discussing the target population, your sample and how you are going about obtaining the sample, the demographics of the participants, and how you will get informed consent. 

2) The second part is the instrumentation in which you describe the data collection tool in detail, any threats to validity and reliability that exist with the study, what particular study design you are choosing to answer your questions, and some sample questions from any questionnaire you have produced.

3) The third part is the procedures, which focus on the physical steps to be taken to complete the study.  This includes describing how you are getting your instrumentation out and how you are collecting and storing the data. 

4) The fourth part is the data analysis section, which does NOT include the actual analysis (AKA the Results) but rather what analysis will be done.  This includes quantitative analysis like chi-square, Pearson’s r, t-tests, ANOVA, regression, and others as well as more qualitative techniques like content analysis, analysis of themes, and triangulation of data.

NOTES:
I am also attaching a sample Research Proposal Part 3: Methodology

NOTES:
Original Research Proposal 1, and 2:

               
                                                         
                                                      Work, Poverty, and Welfare

Research Proposal Part 1:

The rapidly increasing global economic hardships are pushing people to work harder and cut poverty by growing financially. Poverty is associated with adverse conditions such as lack of food, poor access to proper healthcare, insecurity, crime, under-resourced schools, and hazardous surroundings. The world’s largest population of poor people is from developing countries that lack enough opportunities to cater to rapid population growth. The major causes of poverty include; poor infrastructure, adverse climatic conditions, poor education, unequal distribution of resources, corruption, political instability, and inadequate access to nutritious food and clean water. The best way to eradicate poverty is by researching and applying creativity, invention, and innovation to create more job opportunities to boost economic growth and people’s living standards. It is important to talk about work poverty and welfare because it affects a significant percentage of the global population either directly or indirectly. The primary reason behind people’s struggle by attending school, trying out business ventures, and saving their money is to eradicate poverty from their lives. People’s mental health is also associated with their economic status because a lack of important human needs leads to anxiety and depression (Gao, 2018). The world would be a better place if everyone could acquire their basic needs without struggling. It would reduce crime, mortality caused by lack of access to proper healthcare facilities, insecurity, and corruption. Creating awareness about work, poverty, and welfare through active discussions with people from different social backgrounds helps them study their economy and develop effective solutions in unison. For instance, low and middle-income Americans identified that their income neither attained little or major growth over their years of hard labor after reviewing their state of work, poverty, and welfare (Kenworthy & Smeeding, 2014). People should be aware of their ability to control or reduce stagnant incomes or high poverty. Setting different policies is the key solution to dealing with major problems such as poverty. New policies promote different positive outcomes so long as they are set through effective consultation and guidance. Poverty solutions should be carefully evaluated because their effects must be short-term and long-term (Morgan, 2016). For instance, government investments in creating more job opportunities and increasing workers’ wages can promote short and long-term improvements of people’s living standards. Through increased income and accessibility to jobs, parents will comfortably take their children through school and provide them with basic needs. Americans can best improve their living standards by acquiring well-paying jobs that can sustain them through high inflation’s difficult economic times. About 5.6 million or more well-paying jobs were needed in America by July 2018. However, the target was not met because most Americans are still living in poverty due to unemployment. Infrastructural development is key in creating jobs because good infrastructure facilitates a smooth flow of goods, workers, and raw materials (Akinola & Olagunju, 2019). America and global infrastructure need to be reconstructed and improved further according to the technological inventions to encourage rapid business development and expansion. Most global industries operate slowly because of over depending on non-renewable sources such as coal, geothermal, and petroleum. Therefore, the application of renewable energy in industrial activities and transportation can facilitate increased business operations and create more job opportunities (Datta et al., 2018). Furthermore, most governments invest in unreasonable projects that yield income slowly or result in huge losses. Governments should invest in projects appropriately by consulting reliable sources, especially when loans from other countries finance them. Developing countries should also learn how to explore their natural resources to reduce overdependence on external aid.The modern generation cannot live comfortably with minimum wages because of the rapid inflation and decline of the economy. Hence, the proposal of raising minimum wages. In the late 1960s, full-time workers who earned minimum wages could finance their families out of poverty. However, the current conditions are different because employees earning minimum salaries can only finance themselves, their families, and projects by depending on side-hustles. Modern people can’t work on a full-time basis in jobs that give them less income (Halliday & Thrasher, 2020). It is also important for governments to tax citizens according to their income levels because the taxes that most rich people pay are not aligned to their wealth. Poverty is also contributed by people losing interest in their jobs because of identifying biases such as unequal payment. Some companies reward labor differently by either favoring men or women. Proper actions should be taken to enforce equal pay because people go through similar conditions before acquiring jobs regardless of their genders, social class, experience, or age (Hlava, 2018). The key solution is closing the gender wage gap for working women to also enjoy the fruits of their labor with their families. Pay equity can also promote an increased gross domestic product which should be invested to create more employment opportunities. People wear out easily from their jobs due to the pressure of working for extended hours without paid leave and sick days. Hence, most individuals voluntarily or involuntarily quit their jobs before retirement or investing in projects that can sustain themselves and their families. Furthermore, lack of paid leave and sick days gives people hard choices to compromise their needed income or spend quality time with their families (Rosenberg, 2017). Paid leave is a crucial anti-poverty policy because it gives people opportunities to rest and rejuvenate their energy without compromising their income. Leaves and breaks extend workers’ productivity. Most people live in poverty because of low-wage jobs with difficult, constantly shifting, and unpredictable schedules. Inappropriate schedules deny low-income individuals access to opportunities to engage in activities that can earn them extra income. Low-income earners struggle to balance their time at work (Franklin, 2016). Governments should intervene to guide low-wage organizations to establish effective work schedules that do not inconvenience employees from participating in extra activities or hinder them from developing themselves professionally to chase better opportunities. The reason behind different expectations of results in my hypothesis and literature is that the hypothesis does not determine my research type. My focus was more on the research question than the hypothesis because I set my objectives and hypothesis from the research question. A hypothesis differs from a research question because it is a propositional statement, while a research question is formatted as a question. However, research questions are more general than hypotheses, especially in qualitative research that does not depend on testing hypotheses. Presuppositions are allowed in qualitative research or grounded theory.

         

          Impact of the social welfare system on the employment status of low-income earners

Research Proposal Part 2:

Helping low-income earners is a crucial step taken by many countries’ social welfare systems to reduce poverty (Datta, et.al 2018). The social welfare systems promote individual empowerment to low-income earners towards achieving a quality life, social inclusion, and development (Akinola, 2019). Helping low-income earners get employment is beneficial to the individual, family and society at large (Hayes, 2009). The data used to conduct the study and achieve its desired goals is driven by the Social support systems for poverty-stricken families in America (Franklin, 2016). The Bureau of the census data is also used to see the percentage rate of people who are being aided by the social welfare systems of America and the achievements they have made so far (Gao, 2019). Multiple logistics binary regression method is used to identify the individuals and the factors influencing low-income earners’ employment status in America (Cantillon, 2014).  Identifying the causal factors of poverty in low-income individuals aid in coming up with appropriate measures to reduce the poverty level (Webb, et.al 2020). According to the findings, it is reported that individual factors such as age, gender, health status, education, and the status of households play a vital role in determining an individuals employment status (Halliday, 2020). The impact of individual factors hit more to those families that are not receiving help to cater to their basic needs than the families that received monthly allowances (Hlava, 2018). The employment status of families lucky to receive monthly allowances is influenced by environmental, political, and social factors (Kenworth, 2014). In conclusion, unemployment and poverty are issues that are related (Morgan, 2016). In most cases, strategies to reduce the poverty level among the low-income earners have to be taken by the government of a country to ensure that the country’s economic status is not affected (Rosenberg, 2017). This can be done by provision of free or affordable healthcare service for ease of access by all, provision of social-related services, provision of basic allowances (Yoo, 2007). Furthermore, the provision of a good education system that is all-inclusive since an educated nation is an empowered nation and an empowered nation reduces the risks of social problems such as poverty (Andress, 2008).

                                                                      References:

AKINOLA, A., & OLAGUNJU, A. (2019). Evaluation of capital budgeting implementation and infrastructural development. doi:10.31124/advance.11435727.v1

Datta, U., Kalam, A., & Shi, J. (2018). Hybrid PVwind renewable energy sources for microgrid application: An overview. Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids, 1-22. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-102493-5.00001-7

Franklin, S. (2016). Race, class and green jobs in low-income communities in the US: Challenges for community development. Class, Inequality and Community Development. doi:10.1332/policypress/9781447322450.003.0005

Gao, Q. (2018). Welfare, work, and poverty. Oxford Scholarship Online. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190218133.001.0001

Halliday, D., & Thrasher, J. (2020). Low wages and lousy jobs. The Ethics of Capitalism, 106-129. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190096205.003.0006

Hlava, D. (2018). Equal pay: Higher value work entails higher payment. International Labor

Rights Case Law journal, 4 (1), 83-88. doi:10.1163/24056901-00401013

Kenworthy, L., & Smeeding, T. (2014). The United States. Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries, 695-717. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687428.003.0029

Morgan, R. (2016). Prelims – The global child poverty challenge. The Global Child Poverty Challenge, i-vi. doi:10.3362/9781780449661.000

Rosenberg, K. (2017). Lack of paid sick leave reduces use of preventive health care services.

AJN, American Journal of Nursing , 117 (7), 64. doi:10.1097/01.naj.0000520952.71503.98

Morris, K., Mason, W., Bywaters, P., Featherstone, B., Daniel, B., Brady, G., … & Webb, C. (2018). Social work, poverty, and child welfare interventions. Child & Family Social Work, 23(3), 364-372.

Andress, H. J., & Lohmann, H. (Eds.). (2008). The working poor in Europe: Employment, poverty and globalisation. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Cantillon, B., & Vandenbroucke, F. (2014). Reconciling work and poverty reduction: How successful are European welfare states?. OxfordOxford University Press.

Hayes, D., & Spratt, T. (2009). Child welfare interventions: Patterns of social work practice. British Journal of Social Work, 39(8), 1575-1597.

Webb, C., Bywaters, P., Scourfield, J., Davidson, G., & Bunting, L. (2020). Cuts both ways: Ethnicity, poverty, and the social gradient in child welfare interventions. Children and Youth Services Review, 117, 105299.

Yoo, J., Brooks, D., & Patti, R. (2007). Organizational constructs as predictors of effectiveness in child welfare interventions. Child welfare, 86(1).

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