Racial profiling: Is it necessary
Please complete outline and speech These comments remind the speaker to establish eye contact and not to race through the speech.
Including the main points of the introduction helps keep the speaker on track at the start of the speech.
Its usually a good idea to pause briefly before launching into the first main point. This is another way of signaling that you are moving from the introduction to the body.
Most speakers label the body of the speech in the speaking outline as well as in the preparation outline.
Notice how the body of the speech follows the same visual format as the preparation outline. This makes the outline easy to read at a glance.
Throughout the outline, key words are used to jog the speakers memory. Because the final wording of an extemporaneous speech is chosen at the moment of delivery, it will not be exactly the same as that in the preparation outline.
Inserting transitions makes sure the speaker doesnt forget them.
Quotations are usually written out in full in the speaking outline.
Underlining reminds the speaker to stress key words or ideas.
I. Hold up handlook closely.
A.Cant see millions of creatures therebacteria. B. Taught to scrub off in sink.
C. Fineup to a point.
II. Most bacteria should not be washed away.
III. Dr. Martin Blaser, Missing Microbes: coexist with
bacteria vital to human life and the world. IV. Learned in biology; did additional research.
V. Today: bacteria help bodies, environment. (Start with bacteria in us.)
I. Beneficial bacteria in bodies.
A. We have all lived with bacteria since birth.
1. National Geographic: Body is complex ecosystem . . . 40 trillion bacteria
2. Each square centimeter100,000.
3. 100 kinds in mouth.
4. 10 trillion more in body than human cells.
B. One positive function: digest food, maintain weight. 1. Yogurt.
2. Others: sauerkraut, kefir, kimchi, soft cheeses. C. British Journal of Nutrition: help other ways.
1. Strengthen immune systems. 2. Promote healthy organs.
3. Create energy needed to live.
(Just as important as bacteria in the body are bacteria in the world.)
II. Beneficial bacteria in environment.
A. U.S. Dept of Ag, Elaine Ingham: healthy soil needs
thriving bacterial community.
1. Teaspoon of soil100 million.
2. Provide nutrients that allow plants to grow. 3. Good gardengood bacteria.
B. In addition to enriching soil, bacteria can combat pollution.
1. Reduce contaminants in lakes, rivers, oceans.
The Speaking Outline 209
Eye Contact!! Slow Down
2. Scientists use to clean up oil spills. Sources of statistics or testimony should be a. Remember Deepwater Horizon?
included in the speaking outline to make sure the speaker identifies them in the speech.
Its usually a good idea to pause before entering the conclusion.
Including key ideas and phrases from the conclusion jogs the speakers memory and ensures that the speech will end as planned.
b. CNBC: bacteria ate oil.
3. Can also eat plastic and radioactive waste.
I. Some bacteria dangerous, many beneficial.
II. Health of bodies, health of environment depend on
III. Science writer Richard Conniff: see bacteria not as
enemies, but as intimate partners in journey through. Please make sure the speech is short