Paper 1

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1. Kripke claims that true identity statements involving two proper names are examples of the necessary a posteriori. Why does he think this? What is rigid designation, and how does it figure in the explanation of the necessity of identity statements? Please explain what Kripke says about the example of heat. After you do, and his arguments for it, please say whether you think a similar argument applies to pain and C-fiber firing. Do you think pain is more like heat, or more like 30th president of the US? Why? Be sure to explain any technical terms you use (for example, a posteriori).

2. Putnam uses the Twin Earth thought experiment to argue against the two main tenets of what he calls the psychological view of meaning. Then he puts forward a sociological hypothesis that allegedly does a better job explaining our responses to the thought experiment for cases that involve terms like water. After you explain, consider whether it is as Putnam says (for the kinds expressions he is concerned with, expressions like gold, and not like goodbye, or chair). That is, raise 1-2 objections to Putnams argument. What sort of reply could Putnam make? Is it satisfying?

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