1. What  is  meant  by  the  concept  of principlesof  environmental  law?  Explain, identifying three such principles and illustrating your answer with case-law (max 2000 words)

2. EU treaties allow for two mechanisms by which national compliance withEU law can be judicially enforced: a centralised mechanism in which the[European] Commission initiates  infringement  proceedings  against  non-complying member  states,  and  a  de-centralised  mechanism  in  which  citizens,  groupsand  companies  initiate  legal proceedings against non-complying national authorities before national courts.Critically discussthese two mechanisms, including their strengths and weaknesses,in the Irish environmental context (max 2000 words)

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