Any topic (writer’s choice)

Ten years after the hope of the Arab Spring, the Middle East is hardly freer today than it was a
decade ago. Despite the collapse or weakening of multiple authoritarian regimes during the Arab
Uprisings, only Tunisia remains a democracy today. What happened after the Uprisings, why did
they largely fail to produce democracy, and what is the outlook for political change today? Drawing
on the theories and cases (countries) studied in class, answer the following three questions in a
single essay. Strong essays will pay equal attention to each of the three questions.
1. Describe post-revolutionary trajectories in Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria. What happened in Tunisia
and Egypt after their respective regimes fell? What happened in Syria after the initiation of mass
protests that threatened to overthrow the regime? briefly
describe political events in each country in the decade since the Arab Spring. Strong responses
will focus on major events and critical junctures and avoid unnecessary detail.
2. What explains the divergent revolutionary trajectories that you described in Question 1? Why did
Tunisia successfully transition to democracy, while Egypt did not? Why did the Syrian revolution
become a civil war, and why was this conflict sectarianized?  Strong answers will also be
supported by data and evidence from the countries and/or movements.
3. Finally,
in the Middle East today. Is the region likely to become more democratic in the next decade?
What are the prospects for another Arab Spring? Lastly, how can/should the Arab Uprisings
inform future waves of activism and protest? Drawing on the course materials, answer these
questions and draw lessons for anti-regime movements, the international community, and/or
other actors interested in supporting political change and reform in the region.
Your citation should mainly based on the material l have uploaded.

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