Any topic (writer’s choice)

The paper should be typed, double-spaced with margins similar to the course syllabus. Use Times New Roman 12 pt. for font and font size.

we have studied Confucian gender ideology, women and the family in premodern China, using a range of historical documents, secondary literature, and visual materials.  In this assignment, you have an opportunity to use the knowledge acquired to write a thoughtful paper to address the following questions:

Confucian gender ideology limited womens roles to the inner sphere and required them to adhere to the Three Followings. Despite the restrictions, however, some educated women found meaningful ways to play their part in the existing family system, rather than felt victimized by it. Why, in your view, might this be the case? What might be some of the factors that enabled them to play a positive role in the family? How did women exercise their influence and authority at home? How might have education and class affected the ways they played their roles?

Use of Evidence:
To write a thoughtful paper, it is essential that you cite concrete evidence to support your argument. Please following these instructions when citing sources:

1) Draw sources from as many different kinds of sources as possible that include primary documents, secondary sources, lectures, and visual materials.

2) Cite evidence from a range of texts. For example, when using primary documents to support your argument, cite different texts from both Under Confucian Eyes and the e-reserved documents. It is expected that a 6-page paper should use 6 to 7 texts from various kinds of sources, and each page should have a minimum of 2 to 3 citations.

3) It is not required that you cite sources from outside course readings. However, if you aim to write an excellent paper, you should cite external sources to broaden the basis of your evidence. (This does not mean, however, that citing external sources will guarantee an excellent grade). When you do cite external sources, please do not exceed of the total evidence cited for the entire paper. The majority of your sources should still be from the course materials.

4)  Citation: use parentheses to indicate the authors name and page number, and insert them in the paper (do not use footnotes or endnotes).
For example: (Wang 245; Mann and Cheng, 55). No need to provide citations for sources drawn from lectures. Provide a bibliography page that uses the Chicago style.
For samples, see Chicago style samples that Ive posted on Canvas, or visit

Organization: A good essay should be carefully organized. It should have a concise thesis at the beginning that summarizes your main points, logical development of your argument in clear paragraphs through the paper, and a short conclusion. Write in clear language: Proofread your paper before you turn it in.

The paper will be graded for both content and form. A good paper makes a clear, logical argument; is well-supported by evidence from the sources, carefully interpreted, and properly cited; is organized and edited for grammar; and shows deep understanding of Chinese gender and family practices in premodern times. 

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